Botanic name : Psidium guajava
Other names: Perakka,
Fan Shi Liu,
The guava tree is perennial , small evergreen tree with plenty of leaves, growing to 2.7 m. tall, with trunk erect and branched hardwood. The bark is gray, scaly and often smudged. The leaves are opposite, simple, oblong or elliptic, light green.The flowers are white, large, 2.5 cm. in diameter, axillary. They are arranged in solitary or small clusters. The fruit is a berry up to 15 cm. in diameter with white or pink pulp and numerous seeds.
Guava thrives well in places receiving medium rainfall not exceeding 100 cm. In heavy rainfall areas, plants grow luxuriantly, but the quality of the fruits is found to be very poor. It grows well on any type of soil. Red sandy loam soil with good drainage is most ideal for commercial cultivation of guava.
Guava is a nutritious fruit which has numerous health benefits. guava is often referred to as the poor man’s apple. It is considered a super fruit for its rich antioxidants, including vitamin C, polyphenols and caratenoids.
Guava is rich in dietary fiber. The fiber in guava can help you to lose weight and reduce your cholesterol.
Guava contain even more vitamin C than oranges. One guava fruit contains approximately 377mg of vitamin C. Vitamin C supports your immune system by protecting it against pathogens and fighting disease
Guava contains both carotenoids and polyphenols. Carotenoids and polyphenols act as antioxidants and support your immune system by eliminating free radicals and protecting your body's cells against damage.
Guava contains important minerals, including potassium and copper.
The leaves of guava are an excellent cure for diarrhea and other stomach upsets. It is used as herbal anti-biotic to regulate bowel movements. The decoction is also used as a medicine that aids in promoting menstrual discharge and also to expel worms from the intestines. The leaves, roots, barks as well as the unripe fruits are used to arrest dysentery and diarrhea. The mashed guava leaves are applied externally on injuries, ulcers and painful places of the body. The tender leaves are chewed to cure bleeding gums and mouth ulcer. A decoction prepared with the guava leaves is widely taken to cure throat problems and coughs.
Seed propagation is not practiced because of high degree of variation among the progenies. Air layering is widely adopted for propagation of selected varieties. Layers strike roots within 3-5 weeks. When the roots grow through the ball of moss, the stem may be severed below the girdled area in stages. The polythene film is removed from the finally severed rooted stem, which is then potted and kept in the shade until new leaves appear. When the new flushes are produced, the plant can be hardened in full sunlight preparatory to transplanting in the field.
Pits of one mtr. cube are made 6 m apart. Fill the pits with topsoil, sand and cow dung. Layers are planted in the centre of the pit. Staking of plants is also done, if necessary. After planting, mulching with dry leaves should be done to conserve moisture. June-July is the ideal time for planting the layers and seedlings. Plants should be irrigated in summer.